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Recent items - Cardiovascular Research

Novel concepts in HDL pharmacology
28/07/2014 23:16
High-density lipoproteins (HDL) are a target for drug development because of their proposed anti-atherogenic properties. In this review, we will briefly discuss the currently established drugs for increasing HDL-C, namely niacin and fibrates, and so
Contents Page
28/07/2014 23:16
High-density lipoprotein as a modulator of platelet and coagulation responses
28/07/2014 23:16
Platelets and coagulation factors are involved in the process of haemostasis, which ensures undisturbed blood flow upon vessel wall damage. However, excessive platelet aggregation and/or coagulation may lead to arterial or venous thrombosis. Pro-ath
HDL and cholesterol handling in the brain
28/07/2014 23:16
Cholesterol is an essential component of both the peripheral nervous system and central nervous system (CNS) of mammals. Brain cholesterol is synthesized in situ by astrocytes and oligodendrocytes and is almost completely isolated from other pools o
High-density lipoproteins as modulators of endothelial cell functions: alterations in patients with coronary artery disease
28/07/2014 23:16
Alteration of endothelial cell functions, including reduced endothelial nitric oxide (NO) availability, increased endothelial cell apoptosis, adhesion molecule/chemokine expression and pro-thrombotic activation are thought to contribute to the patho
HDL in innate and adaptive immunity
28/07/2014 23:16
During infections or acute conditions high-density lipoproteins cholesterol (HDL-C) levels decrease very rapidly and HDL particles undergo profound changes in their composition and function. These changes are associated with poor prognosis following
Aims and Scope
28/07/2014 23:16
Cover Page
28/07/2014 23:16
Atheroprotective role of high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-associated sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P)
28/07/2014 23:16
Numerous epidemiological studies documented an inverse relationship between plasma high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol levels and the extent of atherosclerotic disease. However, clinical interventions targeting HDL cholesterol failed to show
HDL-mediated mechanisms of protection in cardiovascular disease
28/07/2014 23:16
Low plasma levels of HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C) represent a strong and independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease. HDL particles display a wide spectrum of atheroprotective activities, which include effluxing cellular cholesterol, diminishing c
Spotlight on HDL biology: new insights in metabolism, function, and translation
28/07/2014 23:16
microRNAs and HDL life cycle
28/07/2014 23:16
miRNAs have emerged as important regulators of lipoprotein metabolism. Work over the past few years has demonstrated that miRNAs control the expression of most of the genes associated with high-density lipoprotein (HDL) metabolism, including the ATP
High-density lipoprotein, beta cells, and diabetes
28/07/2014 23:16
High-density lipoproteins (HDLs) exert a series of potentially beneficial effects on many cell types including anti-atherogenic actions on the endothelium and macrophage foam cells. HDLs may also exert anti-diabetogenic functions on the beta cells o
Editorial Board
28/07/2014 23:16
RIP3, a kinase promoting necroptotic cell death, mediates adverse remodelling after myocardial infarction
12/07/2014 18:43
Aims Programmed necrosis (necroptosis) represents a newly identified mechanism of cell death combining features of both apoptosis and necrosis. Like apoptosis, necroptosis is tightly regulated by distinct signalling pathways. A key regulatory role i
Insulin resistance aggravates atherosclerosis by reducing vascular smooth muscle cell survival and increasing CX3CL1/CX3CR1 axis
12/07/2014 18:43
Aims Insulin resistance (IR) is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease and atherosclerosis. Life-threatening acute events are mainly due to rupture of unstable plaques, and the role of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) in this process in
Aims and Scope
12/07/2014 18:43
Cover Page
12/07/2014 18:43
Gene-specific increase in the energetic cost of contraction in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy caused by thick filament mutations
12/07/2014 18:43
Aims Disease mechanisms regarding hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) are largely unknown and disease onset varies. Sarcomere mutations might induce energy depletion for which until now there is no direct evidence at sarcomere level in human HCM. This
The energetic cost of contraction is higher in the myocardium of patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy
12/07/2014 18:43
Intracellular remodelling of Ca2+ stores in pulmonary hypertension
12/07/2014 18:43
Emerging roles of junctophilin-2 in the heart and implications for cardiac diseases
12/07/2014 18:43
Cardiomyocytes rely on a highly specialized subcellular architecture to maintain normal cardiac function. In a little over a decade, junctophilin-2 (JPH2) has become recognized as a cardiac structural protein critical in forming junctional membrane
Editorial Board
12/07/2014 18:43
Contents Page
12/07/2014 18:43
Stretch-induced Ca2+ signalling in vascular smooth muscle cells depends on Ca2+ store segregation
12/07/2014 18:43
Aim Calcium is a key second messenger that can be mobilized from both the extracellular medium and intracellular calcium stores. Pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells (PASMCs) respond to stretch by a calcium increase, a mechanism enhanced during pu
Fibrosis or hypertrophy: let TIMPs decide
12/07/2014 18:43
Vascular smooth muscle cells and monocyte-macrophages accomplice in the accelerated atherosclerosis of insulin resistance states
12/07/2014 18:43
Frizzled7 controls vascular permeability through the Wnt-canonical pathway and cross-talk with endothelial cell junction complexes
12/07/2014 18:43
Aims Vascular permeability is essential for the health of normal tissues and is an important characteristic of many disease states. The role of the Wnt/frizzled pathway in vascular biology has recently been reported. The objectives of this study are
Modulation of neointimal lesion formation by endogenous androgens is independent of vascular androgen receptor
12/07/2014 18:43
Aims Low androgen levels have been linked with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease in men. Previous studies have suggested that androgens directly inhibit atherosclerotic lesion formation although the underlying mechanisms for this remain un
CXCR3-independent actions of the CXC chemokine CXCL10 in the infarcted myocardium and in isolated cardiac fibroblasts are mediated through proteoglycans
12/07/2014 18:43
Aims The CXC chemokine CXCL10 is up-regulated in the infarcted myocardium and limits cardiac fibrosis by inhibiting growth factor-mediated fibroblast migration. CXCL10 signals by binding to its receptor CXCR3; however, recently CXCR3-independent CXC
Critical roles of miRNA-mediated regulation of TGF{beta} signalling during mouse cardiogenesis
12/07/2014 18:43
Aims MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play critical roles during the development of the cardiovascular system. Blocking miRNA biosynthesis in embryonic hearts through a conditional gene inactivation approach led to differential cardiac defects depending on the Cr
Induction of T helper 2 responses against human apolipoprotein B100 does not affect atherosclerosis in ApoE-/- mice
12/07/2014 18:43
Aims Immune responses against LDL antigens have been found to play an important modulatory role in atherosclerosis. Immunization with homologous oxidized LDL, as well as human apolipoprotein B100 (ApoB)-derived peptides, inhibits atherosclerosis in
NEXN inhibits GATA4 and leads to atrial septal defects in mice and humans
12/07/2014 18:43
Aims Cardiac structural genes have been implicated as causative factors for congenital heart diseases (CHDs). NEXN is an F-actin binding protein and previously identified as a disease gene causing cardiomyopathies. Whether NEXN contributes to CHDs a
Effective glycaemic control critically determines insulin cardioprotection against ischaemia/reperfusion injury in anaesthetized dogs
12/07/2014 18:43
Aims Experimental evidence has shown significant cardioprotective effects of insulin, whereas clinical trials produced mixed results without valid explanations. This study was designed to examine the effect of hyperglycaemia on insulin cardioprotect
Differential role of TIMP2 and TIMP3 in cardiac hypertrophy, fibrosis, and diastolic dysfunction
12/07/2014 18:43
Aims Tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases (TIMPs) can mediate myocardial remodelling, hypertrophy, and fibrosis in heart disease. We investigated the impact of TIMP2 vs. TIMP3 deficiency in angiotensin II (Ang II)-induced myocardial remodelling an
Tubulin polymerization disrupts cardiac {beta}-adrenergic regulation of late INa
20/06/2014 21:23
Aims The anticancer drug paclitaxel (TXL) that polymerizes microtubules is associated with arrhythmias and sinus node dysfunction. TXL can alter membrane expression of Na channels (NaV1.5) and Na current (INa), but the mechanisms are unknown. Calciu
MicroRNA-155 and macrophages: a fatty liaison
20/06/2014 21:23
Central blockade of TLR4 improves cardiac function and attenuates myocardial inflammation in angiotensin II-induced hypertension
20/06/2014 21:23
Aims Understanding the novel signalling pathways involved in the pathogenesis of hypertension is vital for the development of effective therapeutic strategies. Recent evidence suggests a role for Toll-like receptor (TLR) 4 in the development of card
Lipoprotein (a) concentrations, apolipoprotein (a) phenotypes, and peripheral arterial disease in three independent cohorts
20/06/2014 21:23
Aims The relevance of lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)] concentrations and low-molecular-weight (LMW) apo(a) phenotypes in peripheral arterial disease (PAD) has only been investigated by few studies. Therefore, we analysed this association in three independent
Sphingosine kinase 1 expressed by endothelial colony-forming cells has a critical role in their revascularization activity
20/06/2014 21:23
Aims Cell therapy based on endothelial colony-forming cells (ECFCs) is a promising option for ischaemic cardiovascular diseases. A better understanding of the mechanisms by which these cells promote revascularization remains a critical challenge to
Proteasomal degradation of O-GlcNAc transferase elevates hypoxia-induced vascular endothelial inflammatory response
20/06/2014 21:23
Aims Hypoxia induces vascular inflammation by a mechanism not fully understood. Emerging evidence implicates O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT) in inflammation. This study explored the role of OGT in hypoxia-induced vascular endothelial inflammatory respons
Quantitative proteomics analysis reveals similar release profiles following specific PAR-1 or PAR-4 stimulation of platelets
20/06/2014 21:23
Aims Platelets are a natural source of growth factors, cytokines and chemokines, that regulate angiogenesis and inflammation. It has been suggested that differential release of pro- and anti-angiogenic growth factors from platelet α-granules b
Chromatin modifications remodel cardiac gene expression
20/06/2014 21:23
Signalling and transcriptional control involve precise programmes of gene activation and suppression necessary for cardiovascular physiology. Deep sequencing of DNA-bound transcription factors reveals a remarkable complexity of co-activators or co-r
Small-conductance calcium-activated potassium (SK) channels contribute to action potential repolarization in human atria
20/06/2014 21:23
Aims Small-conductance calcium-activated potassium (SK) channels are expressed in the heart of various species, including humans. The aim of the present study was to address whether SK channels play a functional role in human atria. Methods and res
Extent of flow recirculation governs expression of atherosclerotic and thrombotic biomarkers in arterial bifurcations
20/06/2014 21:23
Aims Atherogenesis, evolution of plaque, and outcomes following endovascular intervention depend heavily on the unique vascular architecture of each individual. Patient-specific, multiscale models able to correlate changes in microscopic cellular re
The tumour suppressor Ras-association domain family protein 1A (RASSF1A) regulates TNF-{alpha} signalling in cardiomyocytes
20/06/2014 21:23
Aims Tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) plays a key role in the regulation of cardiac contractility. Although cardiomyocytes are known to express the TNF-α receptors (TNFRs), the mechanism of TNF-α signal transmission is incomp
Blunted cardiac beta-adrenergic response as an early indication of cardiac dysfunction in Duchenne muscular dystrophy
20/06/2014 21:23
Aims To determine whether altered beta-adrenergic responses contribute to early cardiac dysfunction in mdx (X-linked muscular dystrophy) mice, an animal model for human Duchenne muscular dystrophy. Methods and results Replacement fibrosis in mdx he
The FGF-2-triggered protection of cardiac subsarcolemmal mitochondria from calcium overload is mitochondrial connexin 43-dependent
20/06/2014 21:23
Aims Fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF-2) protects the heart from ischaemia- and reperfusion-induced cell death by a mechanism linked to protein kinase C (PKC)-mediated connexin 43 (Cx43) phosphorylation. Cx43 localizes predominantly to gap junctions,
P53 inhibition exacerbates late-stage anthracycline cardiotoxicity
20/06/2014 21:23
Aims Doxorubicin (DOX) is an effective anti-cancer therapeutic, but is associated with both acute and late-stage cardiotoxicity. Children are particularly sensitive to DOX-induced heart failure. Here, the impact of p53 inhibition on acute vs. late-s
TNF-{alpha}-mediated caspase-8 activation induces ROS production and TRPM2 activation in adult ventricular myocytes
20/06/2014 21:23
Aims TRPM2 is a Ca2+-permeable cationic channel of the transient receptor potential (TRP) superfamily that is linked to apoptotic signalling. Its involvement in cardiac pathophysiology is unknown. The aim of this study was to determine whether the p
Elevated microRNA-155 promotes foam cell formation by targeting HBP1 in atherogenesis
20/06/2014 21:23
Aim MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play key roles in inflammatory responses of macrophages. However, the function of miRNAs in macrophage-derived foam cell formation is unclear. Here, we investigated the role of miRNAs in macrophage-derived foam cell formation
Muscle-derived follistatin-like 1 functions to reduce neointimal formation after vascular injury
20/06/2014 21:23
Aims It is well-established that exercise diminishes cardiovascular risk, but whether humoral factors secreted by muscle confer these benefits has not been conclusively shown. We have shown that the secreted protein follistatin-like 1 (Fstl1) has be
Reactive oxygen species regulate the quiescence of CD34-positive cells derived from human embryonic stem cells
20/06/2014 21:23
Aims Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are involved in a wide range of cellular processes. However, few studies have examined the generation and function of ROS in human embryonic vascular development. In this study, the sources of ROS and their roles i
Impaired local regulation of ryanodine receptor type 2 by protein phosphatase 1 promotes atrial fibrillation
20/06/2014 21:23
Aims Altered Ca2+ handling in atrial fibrillation (AF) has been associated with dysregulated protein phosphatase 1 (PP1) and subcellular heterogeneities in protein phosphorylation, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. This is due to a lack