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Recent items - Cardiovascular Research

Leucocyte expression of complement C5a receptors exacerbates infarct size after myocardial reperfusion injury
27/08/2014 01:09
Aims Early reperfusion is mandatory for the treatment of acute myocardial infarction. This process, however, also induces additional loss of viable myocardium, called ischaemia–reperfusion (IR) injury. Complement activation plays an important
Delayed phospholamban phosphorylation in post-conditioned heart favours Ca2+ normalization and contributes to protection
27/08/2014 01:09
Aims It has been shown that sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium ATPase (SERCA) plays a critical role in reperfusion injury. Moreover, ischaemic post-conditioning (PoCo) results in protein kinase G (PKG) activation which has been proposed to modulate phos
LOX-1, mtDNA damage, and NLRP3 inflammasome activation in macrophages: implications in atherogenesis
27/08/2014 01:09
Aims Lectin-like ox-LDL scavenger receptor-1 (LOX-1) and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) damage play a key role in a variety of cardiovascular diseases, including atherosclerosis, hypertension, and inflammation. We posited that damaged mtDNA could trigger
Emerging regulators of vascular smooth muscle cell function in the development and progression of atherosclerosis
27/08/2014 01:09
After a period of relative senescence in the field of vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) research with particular regards to atherosclerosis, the last few years has witnessed a resurgence, with extensive research re-assessing potential molecular mec
The complexity of cell composition of the intima of large arteries: focus on pericyte-like cells
27/08/2014 01:09
Pericytes, which are also known as Rouget cells or perivascular cells, are considered to represent a likely distinct pool of vascular cells that are extremely branched and located mostly in the periphery of the vascular system. The family of pericyt
Influence of the Purkinje-muscle junction on transmural repolarization heterogeneity
27/08/2014 01:09
Aims To elucidate the properties of the PMJ and myocardium underlying these effects. Transmural heterogeneity of action potential duration (APD) is known to play an important role in arrhythmogenesis. Regions of non-uniformities of APD gradients oft
A critical role for Egr-1 during vascular remodelling in pulmonary arterial hypertension
27/08/2014 01:09
Aims Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is characterized by the development of unique neointimal lesions in the small pulmonary arteries, leading to increased right ventricular (RV) afterload and failure. Novel therapeutic strategies are needed t
Aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 activation in heart failure restores mitochondrial function and improves ventricular function and remodelling
27/08/2014 01:09
Aims We previously demonstrated that pharmacological activation of mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2) protects the heart against acute ischaemia/reperfusion injury. Here, we determined the benefits of chronic activation of ALDH2 on the p
Mechanisms underlying capsaicin effects in canine coronary artery: implications for coronary spasm
27/08/2014 01:09
Aims The TRPV1, transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1, agonist capsaicin is considered to be beneficial for cardiovascular health because it dilates coronary arteries through an endothelial-dependent mechanism and may slow atheroma progressi
Inhibition of miR-92a improves re-endothelialization and prevents neointima formation following vascular injury
27/08/2014 01:09
Aims MicroRNA (miR)-92a is an important regulator of endothelial proliferation and angiogenesis after ischaemia, but the effects of miR-92a on re-endothelialization and neointimal lesion formation after vascular injury remain elusive. We tested the
Contents Page
27/08/2014 01:09
Direct measurements of SR free Ca reveal the mechanism underlying the transient effects of RyR potentiation under physiological conditions
27/08/2014 01:09
Aims Most of the calcium that activates contraction is released from the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) through the ryanodine receptor (RyR). It is controversial whether activators of the RyR produce a maintained increase in the amplitude of the systol
LOX-1 and mitochondria: an inflammatory relationship
27/08/2014 01:09
Obesity-induced lysine acetylation increases cardiac fatty acid oxidation and impairs insulin signalling
27/08/2014 01:09
Aims Lysine acetylation is a novel post-translational pathway that regulates the activities of enzymes involved in both fatty acid and glucose metabolism. We examined whether lysine acetylation controls heart glucose and fatty acid oxidation in high
Mitochondrial protection restores renal function in swine atherosclerotic renovascular disease
27/08/2014 01:09
Aims The mechanisms responsible for renal injury in atherosclerotic renovascular disease (ARVD) are incompletely understood, and few therapeutic options are available to reverse it. We hypothesized that chronic renal damage involves mitochondrial in
Micromanaging restenosis by therapeutic inhibition of miR-92a
27/08/2014 01:09
Extracellular vesicles from human cardiac progenitor cells inhibit cardiomyocyte apoptosis and improve cardiac function after myocardial infarction
27/08/2014 01:09
Aims Recent evidence suggests that cardiac progenitor cells (CPCs) may improve cardiac function after injury. The underlying mechanisms are indirect, but their mediators remain unidentified. Exosomes and other secreted membrane vesicles, hereafter c
Critical role of matrix metalloprotease-9 in chronic high fat diet-induced cerebral vascular remodelling and increase of ischaemic brain injury in mice
27/08/2014 01:09
Aims About one-third of American adults and 20% of teenagers are obese. Obesity and its associated metabolic disturbances including hyperlipidaemia are risk factors for cardiovascular diseases including stroke. They can worsen neurological outcome a
Potentiating mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 to treat post-infarction heart failure
27/08/2014 01:09
Regulatory T cells influence blood flow recovery in experimental hindlimb ischaemia in an IL-10-dependent manner
27/08/2014 01:09
Aims Ischaemic damage is associated with up-regulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines, as well as invasion of leucocytes and lymphocytes to the injured muscle. Regulatory T cells (Tregs) exert suppressive effects on several immune and non-immune cell
Aims and Scope
27/08/2014 01:09
Cover Page
27/08/2014 01:09
Editorial Board
27/08/2014 01:09
T-type calcium channels are involved in hypoxic pulmonary hypertension
27/08/2014 01:09
Aims Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is the main disease of pulmonary circulation. Alteration in calcium homeostasis in pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (PASMCs) is recognized as a key feature in PH. The present study was undertaken to investigate t
Expression of fibulin-6 in failing hearts and its role for cardiac fibroblast migration
27/08/2014 01:09
Aims The cardiac extracellular matrix (ECM) undergoes a dynamic transition following myocardial infarction. Fibulin-6 is expressed in cell junctions particularly in tissues subjected to significant mechanical stress. Fibulin-6 deficiency results in
Novel concepts in HDL pharmacology
28/07/2014 23:16
High-density lipoproteins (HDL) are a target for drug development because of their proposed anti-atherogenic properties. In this review, we will briefly discuss the currently established drugs for increasing HDL-C, namely niacin and fibrates, and so
Contents Page
28/07/2014 23:16
High-density lipoprotein as a modulator of platelet and coagulation responses
28/07/2014 23:16
Platelets and coagulation factors are involved in the process of haemostasis, which ensures undisturbed blood flow upon vessel wall damage. However, excessive platelet aggregation and/or coagulation may lead to arterial or venous thrombosis. Pro-ath
HDL and cholesterol handling in the brain
28/07/2014 23:16
Cholesterol is an essential component of both the peripheral nervous system and central nervous system (CNS) of mammals. Brain cholesterol is synthesized in situ by astrocytes and oligodendrocytes and is almost completely isolated from other pools o
High-density lipoproteins as modulators of endothelial cell functions: alterations in patients with coronary artery disease
28/07/2014 23:16
Alteration of endothelial cell functions, including reduced endothelial nitric oxide (NO) availability, increased endothelial cell apoptosis, adhesion molecule/chemokine expression and pro-thrombotic activation are thought to contribute to the patho
HDL in innate and adaptive immunity
28/07/2014 23:16
During infections or acute conditions high-density lipoproteins cholesterol (HDL-C) levels decrease very rapidly and HDL particles undergo profound changes in their composition and function. These changes are associated with poor prognosis following
Aims and Scope
28/07/2014 23:16
Cover Page
28/07/2014 23:16
Atheroprotective role of high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-associated sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P)
28/07/2014 23:16
Numerous epidemiological studies documented an inverse relationship between plasma high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol levels and the extent of atherosclerotic disease. However, clinical interventions targeting HDL cholesterol failed to show
HDL-mediated mechanisms of protection in cardiovascular disease
28/07/2014 23:16
Low plasma levels of HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C) represent a strong and independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease. HDL particles display a wide spectrum of atheroprotective activities, which include effluxing cellular cholesterol, diminishing c
Spotlight on HDL biology: new insights in metabolism, function, and translation
28/07/2014 23:16
microRNAs and HDL life cycle
28/07/2014 23:16
miRNAs have emerged as important regulators of lipoprotein metabolism. Work over the past few years has demonstrated that miRNAs control the expression of most of the genes associated with high-density lipoprotein (HDL) metabolism, including the ATP
High-density lipoprotein, beta cells, and diabetes
28/07/2014 23:16
High-density lipoproteins (HDLs) exert a series of potentially beneficial effects on many cell types including anti-atherogenic actions on the endothelium and macrophage foam cells. HDLs may also exert anti-diabetogenic functions on the beta cells o
Editorial Board
28/07/2014 23:16
RIP3, a kinase promoting necroptotic cell death, mediates adverse remodelling after myocardial infarction
12/07/2014 18:43
Aims Programmed necrosis (necroptosis) represents a newly identified mechanism of cell death combining features of both apoptosis and necrosis. Like apoptosis, necroptosis is tightly regulated by distinct signalling pathways. A key regulatory role i
Insulin resistance aggravates atherosclerosis by reducing vascular smooth muscle cell survival and increasing CX3CL1/CX3CR1 axis
12/07/2014 18:43
Aims Insulin resistance (IR) is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease and atherosclerosis. Life-threatening acute events are mainly due to rupture of unstable plaques, and the role of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) in this process in
Gene-specific increase in the energetic cost of contraction in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy caused by thick filament mutations
12/07/2014 18:43
Aims Disease mechanisms regarding hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) are largely unknown and disease onset varies. Sarcomere mutations might induce energy depletion for which until now there is no direct evidence at sarcomere level in human HCM. This
Emerging roles of junctophilin-2 in the heart and implications for cardiac diseases
12/07/2014 18:43
Cardiomyocytes rely on a highly specialized subcellular architecture to maintain normal cardiac function. In a little over a decade, junctophilin-2 (JPH2) has become recognized as a cardiac structural protein critical in forming junctional membrane
Stretch-induced Ca2+ signalling in vascular smooth muscle cells depends on Ca2+ store segregation
12/07/2014 18:43
Aim Calcium is a key second messenger that can be mobilized from both the extracellular medium and intracellular calcium stores. Pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells (PASMCs) respond to stretch by a calcium increase, a mechanism enhanced during pu
Fibrosis or hypertrophy: let TIMPs decide
12/07/2014 18:43
Vascular smooth muscle cells and monocyte-macrophages accomplice in the accelerated atherosclerosis of insulin resistance states
12/07/2014 18:43
Frizzled7 controls vascular permeability through the Wnt-canonical pathway and cross-talk with endothelial cell junction complexes
12/07/2014 18:43
Aims Vascular permeability is essential for the health of normal tissues and is an important characteristic of many disease states. The role of the Wnt/frizzled pathway in vascular biology has recently been reported. The objectives of this study are
Modulation of neointimal lesion formation by endogenous androgens is independent of vascular androgen receptor
12/07/2014 18:43
Aims Low androgen levels have been linked with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease in men. Previous studies have suggested that androgens directly inhibit atherosclerotic lesion formation although the underlying mechanisms for this remain un
CXCR3-independent actions of the CXC chemokine CXCL10 in the infarcted myocardium and in isolated cardiac fibroblasts are mediated through proteoglycans
12/07/2014 18:43
Aims The CXC chemokine CXCL10 is up-regulated in the infarcted myocardium and limits cardiac fibrosis by inhibiting growth factor-mediated fibroblast migration. CXCL10 signals by binding to its receptor CXCR3; however, recently CXCR3-independent CXC
Critical roles of miRNA-mediated regulation of TGF{beta} signalling during mouse cardiogenesis
12/07/2014 18:43
Aims MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play critical roles during the development of the cardiovascular system. Blocking miRNA biosynthesis in embryonic hearts through a conditional gene inactivation approach led to differential cardiac defects depending on the Cr
Induction of T helper 2 responses against human apolipoprotein B100 does not affect atherosclerosis in ApoE-/- mice
12/07/2014 18:43
Aims Immune responses against LDL antigens have been found to play an important modulatory role in atherosclerosis. Immunization with homologous oxidized LDL, as well as human apolipoprotein B100 (ApoB)-derived peptides, inhibits atherosclerosis in
NEXN inhibits GATA4 and leads to atrial septal defects in mice and humans
12/07/2014 18:43
Aims Cardiac structural genes have been implicated as causative factors for congenital heart diseases (CHDs). NEXN is an F-actin binding protein and previously identified as a disease gene causing cardiomyopathies. Whether NEXN contributes to CHDs a
Effective glycaemic control critically determines insulin cardioprotection against ischaemia/reperfusion injury in anaesthetized dogs
12/07/2014 18:43
Aims Experimental evidence has shown significant cardioprotective effects of insulin, whereas clinical trials produced mixed results without valid explanations. This study was designed to examine the effect of hyperglycaemia on insulin cardioprotect
Differential role of TIMP2 and TIMP3 in cardiac hypertrophy, fibrosis, and diastolic dysfunction
12/07/2014 18:43
Aims Tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases (TIMPs) can mediate myocardial remodelling, hypertrophy, and fibrosis in heart disease. We investigated the impact of TIMP2 vs. TIMP3 deficiency in angiotensin II (Ang II)-induced myocardial remodelling an